Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. North, west and south-west boundary lines divide BiH from the Republic of Croatia, and east and south boundary lines from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The coastal line of Bosnia and Herzegovina lies upon the Adriatic Sea, around the town of Neum, and is about 21 km long.
Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of four large geographic units. Central Bosnia (12.920 sq. km, population of 1.249.000) includes the mountainous area in the central part of Bosnia. This is the most developed part of the country that for a long time was a crossroad of various influences and interests of neighbouring Pannonian, Karst, and Mediterranean regions. "High Karst" of Bosnia and Herzegovina (11.842 sq. km, population of 325.000) consists of the mountainous Karst area of west Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is the part of the country with the smallest population and is the least developed part - only 9% of its territory is cultivable and less then 30% of the entire population lives in the cities of this part. The Mediterranean region, Low Herzegovina (5.399 sq. km, population of 296.000) is situated in the central-coastal region behind a mountain, and is the smallest of the four geographic units of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a compound state, which in line with the General Framework Agreement for Peace in BiH, consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (51% of territory) and the Republika Srpska (49% of territory). Brcko, which was a subject of disputes and international arbitrage, was proclaimed a district. Thus, Bosnia and Herzegovina has two entities and Brcko District.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska are entities having their own constitutions, which have to be in conformity with the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as the entity, consists of ten cantons (which, in administrative terms are further split into communes) as follows: – Una-Sana Canton, Posavina Canton, Tuzla Canton, Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia –Podrinje Canton, Central Bosnia Canton, Herzegovina-Neretva Canton, West Herzegovina Canton, Sarajevo Canton.
The Parliament of the Federation of BiH has legislative powers and is comprised of the House of Representatives and the House of Peoples. Executive powers are performed by the President of the Federation and two Vice Presidents, as well as the Government of the Federation of BiH. Sarajevo is the capital city.
Republika Srpska is the entity, which is administratively split into regions (Banja Luka, Doboj, Bijeljina, Pale and Trebinje). Regions are further split into communes.
National Assembly of the Republika Srpska and the Council of Peoples in the Republika Srpska exercise legislative powers in the RS. Executive powers are excercised by the President and two Vice Presidents of the Republika Srpska, as well as by the Government of the Republika Srpska. Sarajevo is the capital city.
The territory of Brcko was under arbitrage and was attached neither to the Federation of BiH nor to the Republika Srpska. By decision of the International Arbitrary Commission, close to the end of 2000, Brcko was put under administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as the separate district.
Brcko District has its own multi-ethnical government, Assembly, Executive Board, jurisdiction and police forces.